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With the HP process, gases with a considerable content of hydrogen are purified into high purity hydrogen by pressure swing adsorption (PSA). The HP process is designed for hydrogen production at highest efficiency from various raw gases within different industries, eg. refining, (petro)chemical, oil and food, fatty acids or steel-making. Within CALORIC HP process the

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CALORIC has developed and supplied syngas generating plants based on the steam reforming HC process, the MeOH reforming HM process or the CALCOR CO generation process. Depending on the required H2 to CO ratio, purity requirements and feed situation, various plant configurations are possible. Typically, the process is close to the standard reforming processes. A

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Hydrogen by Steam Reforming

With the HC process, high purity hydrogen is produced by steam reforming of a hydrocarbon combined with a PSA purification step. The feed is mixed with a split stream of hydrogen and then preheated in the heat exchanger prior to passing a sulphur removal. The feed is then mixed with superheated steam. Whilst passing the

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With the HM process, high purity hydrogen is produced by methanol reforming combined with a PSA purification step. A mixture of methanol and demineralised water is vaporised in heat exchangers. Whilst passing the heated catalyst, the methanol/water vapour mixture is converted into a syngas consisting of H2, CO, CO2, CH4 and water vapour. In a

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Under normal market situation, the most efficient feed for a low OPEX hydrogen generation plant is natural gas. However, in some world regions the supply is insecure due to network pressure drops or natural gas price is extremely high as only LNG is available. Alternative feedstocks then could be MeOH, LPG or naphtha. To not

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Incineration of Si-containing wastes is much more complex compared to the previous processes and bears the risk of clogging the system. Basically the Si part of the silanes will be oxidised to SiO2. However depending on the conditions in the combustion process, the SiO2 can either be formed in particle solid stage or in case

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The common way to produce HCl is to convert chlorine with pure hydrogen in a HCl synthesis unit. The hydrogen required for this process is generated typically in a steam reformer using natural gas as feed stock. However in case wastes with higher chlorine concentrations are available, an economical alternative for HCl production by HCl

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By incineration of alkaline solutions, low-melting eutectics are formed which always lead to an attack of the refractory lining of the combustion chamber. In order to avoid total wear of the initial ceramic lining a jacketed combustion chamber is used. The heat loss through the chamber is utilised to generate saturated steam. By this, the

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To burn the oxidisable elements in the waste water, it must either be evaporated outside the combustion chamber, or it evaporates inside the combustion chamber. The high heat of evaporation of water, which normally has to be achieved by using primary energy, is synonymous with a high specific energy requirement. CALORIC developed a process that

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During incineration of salt-containing wastes, some of the salt will accumulate on the incinerator wall whilst the other part is carried as gas in the flue gas. The arrangement of the combustion chamber must therefore allow for drainage of the salt slag. In the quench system with immersion tube, the slag will be dissolved. Small-size

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